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Bronchogenic Cyst

What is bronchogenic cyst?

A lobar bronchogenic cyst is a cystic lesion that arises from abnormal growth of bronchial tissue during fetal development. It typically presents as a fluid-filled sac or cavity within the lung tissue and is often detected during infancy or childhood. These cysts are usually benign but can cause symptoms or complications if they grow large or become infected.

What causes bronchogenic cyst?

The exact cause of bronchogenic cysts is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from abnormal development of the respiratory tract during embryonic growth. Factors that may contribute to the formation of bronchogenic cysts include:

  • Aberrant budding of the primitive foregut during fetal development

  • Genetic or familial predisposition

  • Environmental factors or exposures during pregnancy

What are the symptoms of bronchogenic cyst?

Bronchogenic cysts may be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on imaging studies, or they may cause symptoms depending on their size, location, and any associated complications.

 

Common symptoms of bronchogenic cysts may include:

  • Respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, or shortness of breath

  • Chest pain or discomfort

  • Recurrent respiratory infections

  • Difficulty breathing or noisy breathing (stridor) in infants

  • Hemoptysis (coughing up blood) if the cyst ruptures or becomes infected

How to treat bronchogenic cyst?

Treatment of bronchogenic cysts depends on various factors including the size, location, and symptoms they cause.

 

Options may include:

  • Observation: Small, asymptomatic bronchogenic cysts may be monitored with periodic imaging studies to assess for any changes or growth.

  • Surgical resection: Symptomatic or large bronchogenic cysts may require surgical removal to alleviate symptoms, prevent complications, and confirm the diagnosis.

  • Minimally invasive procedures: In some cases, bronchogenic cysts may be drained or decompressed using minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopic or percutaneous drainage.

  • Antibiotic therapy: If a bronchogenic cyst becomes infected, antibiotic treatment may be necessary to control the infection and prevent complications.


Treatment decisions should be made in consultation with a healthcare provider, preferably a paediatric surgeon or thoracic surgeon, who can evaluate the specific circumstances of the individual case and recommend the most appropriate management approach.

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